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   1  =head1 NAME
   2  
   3  perlebcdic - Considerations for running Perl on EBCDIC platforms
   4  
   5  =head1 DESCRIPTION
   6  
   7  An exploration of some of the issues facing Perl programmers
   8  on EBCDIC based computers.  We do not cover localization, 
   9  internationalization, or multi byte character set issues other
  10  than some discussion of UTF-8 and UTF-EBCDIC.
  11  
  12  Portions that are still incomplete are marked with XXX.
  13  
  14  =head1 COMMON CHARACTER CODE SETS
  15  
  16  =head2 ASCII
  17  
  18  The American Standard Code for Information Interchange is a set of
  19  integers running from 0 to 127 (decimal) that imply character 
  20  interpretation by the display and other system(s) of computers.  
  21  The range 0..127 can be covered by setting the bits in a 7-bit binary 
  22  digit, hence the set is sometimes referred to as a "7-bit ASCII".  
  23  ASCII was described by the American National Standards Institute 
  24  document ANSI X3.4-1986.  It was also described by ISO 646:1991 
  25  (with localization for currency symbols).  The full ASCII set is 
  26  given in the table below as the first 128 elements.  Languages that 
  27  can be written adequately with the characters in ASCII include 
  28  English, Hawaiian, Indonesian, Swahili and some Native American 
  29  languages.
  30  
  31  There are many character sets that extend the range of integers
  32  from 0..2**7-1 up to 2**8-1, or 8 bit bytes (octets if you prefer).
  33  One common one is the ISO 8859-1 character set.
  34  
  35  =head2 ISO 8859
  36  
  37  The ISO 8859-$n are a collection of character code sets from the 
  38  International Organization for Standardization (ISO) each of which 
  39  adds characters to the ASCII set that are typically found in European 
  40  languages many of which are based on the Roman, or Latin, alphabet.
  41  
  42  =head2 Latin 1 (ISO 8859-1)
  43  
  44  A particular 8-bit extension to ASCII that includes grave and acute 
  45  accented Latin characters.  Languages that can employ ISO 8859-1 
  46  include all the languages covered by ASCII as well as Afrikaans, 
  47  Albanian, Basque, Catalan, Danish, Faroese, Finnish, Norwegian, 
  48  Portuguese, Spanish, and Swedish.  Dutch is covered albeit without 
  49  the ij ligature.  French is covered too but without the oe ligature. 
  50  German can use ISO 8859-1 but must do so without German-style
  51  quotation marks.  This set is based on Western European extensions 
  52  to ASCII and is commonly encountered in world wide web work.
  53  In IBM character code set identification terminology ISO 8859-1 is
  54  also known as CCSID 819 (or sometimes 0819 or even 00819).
  55  
  56  =head2 EBCDIC
  57  
  58  The Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code refers to a 
  59  large collection of slightly different single and multi byte 
  60  coded character sets that are different from ASCII or ISO 8859-1 
  61  and typically run on host computers.  The EBCDIC encodings derive 
  62  from 8 bit byte extensions of Hollerith punched card encodings.
  63  The layout on the cards was such that high bits were set for the
  64  upper and lower case alphabet characters [a-z] and [A-Z], but there
  65  were gaps within each latin alphabet range.
  66  
  67  Some IBM EBCDIC character sets may be known by character code set 
  68  identification numbers (CCSID numbers) or code page numbers.  Leading
  69  zero digits in CCSID numbers within this document are insignificant.
  70  E.g. CCSID 0037 may be referred to as 37 in places.
  71  
  72  =head2 13 variant characters
  73  
  74  Among IBM EBCDIC character code sets there are 13 characters that
  75  are often mapped to different integer values.  Those characters
  76  are known as the 13 "variant" characters and are:
  77  
  78      \ [ ] { } ^ ~ ! # | $ @ ` 
  79  
  80  =head2 0037
  81  
  82  Character code set ID 0037 is a mapping of the ASCII plus Latin-1 
  83  characters (i.e. ISO 8859-1) to an EBCDIC set.  0037 is used 
  84  in North American English locales on the OS/400 operating system 
  85  that runs on AS/400 computers.  CCSID 37 differs from ISO 8859-1 
  86  in 237 places, in other words they agree on only 19 code point values.
  87  
  88  =head2 1047
  89  
  90  Character code set ID 1047 is also a mapping of the ASCII plus 
  91  Latin-1 characters (i.e. ISO 8859-1) to an EBCDIC set.  1047 is 
  92  used under Unix System Services for OS/390 or z/OS, and OpenEdition 
  93  for VM/ESA.  CCSID 1047 differs from CCSID 0037 in eight places.
  94  
  95  =head2 POSIX-BC
  96  
  97  The EBCDIC code page in use on Siemens' BS2000 system is distinct from
  98  1047 and 0037.  It is identified below as the POSIX-BC set.
  99  
 100  =head2 Unicode code points versus EBCDIC code points
 101  
 102  In Unicode terminology a I<code point> is the number assigned to a
 103  character: for example, in EBCDIC the character "A" is usually assigned
 104  the number 193.  In Unicode the character "A" is assigned the number 65.
 105  This causes a problem with the semantics of the pack/unpack "U", which
 106  are supposed to pack Unicode code points to characters and back to numbers.
 107  The problem is: which code points to use for code points less than 256?
 108  (for 256 and over there's no problem: Unicode code points are used)
 109  In EBCDIC, for the low 256 the EBCDIC code points are used.  This
 110  means that the equivalences
 111  
 112      pack("U", ord($character)) eq $character
 113      unpack("U", $character) == ord $character
 114  
 115  will hold.  (If Unicode code points were applied consistently over
 116  all the possible code points, pack("U",ord("A")) would in EBCDIC
 117  equal I<A with acute> or chr(101), and unpack("U", "A") would equal
 118  65, or I<non-breaking space>, not 193, or ord "A".)
 119  
 120  =head2 Remaining Perl Unicode problems in EBCDIC
 121  
 122  =over 4
 123  
 124  =item *
 125  
 126  Many of the remaining seem to be related to case-insensitive matching:
 127  for example, C<< /[\x{131}]/ >> (LATIN SMALL LETTER DOTLESS I) does
 128  not match "I" case-insensitively, as it should under Unicode.
 129  (The match succeeds in ASCII-derived platforms.)
 130  
 131  =item *
 132  
 133  The extensions Unicode::Collate and Unicode::Normalized are not
 134  supported under EBCDIC, likewise for the encoding pragma.
 135  
 136  =back
 137  
 138  =head2 Unicode and UTF
 139  
 140  UTF is a Unicode Transformation Format.  UTF-8 is a Unicode conforming
 141  representation of the Unicode standard that looks very much like ASCII.
 142  UTF-EBCDIC is an attempt to represent Unicode characters in an EBCDIC
 143  transparent manner.
 144  
 145  =head2 Using Encode
 146  
 147  Starting from Perl 5.8 you can use the standard new module Encode
 148  to translate from EBCDIC to Latin-1 code points
 149  
 150      use Encode 'from_to';
 151  
 152      my %ebcdic = ( 176 => 'cp37', 95 => 'cp1047', 106 => 'posix-bc' );
 153  
 154      # $a is in EBCDIC code points
 155      from_to($a, $ebcdic{ord '^'}, 'latin1');
 156      # $a is ISO 8859-1 code points
 157  
 158  and from Latin-1 code points to EBCDIC code points
 159  
 160      use Encode 'from_to';
 161  
 162      my %ebcdic = ( 176 => 'cp37', 95 => 'cp1047', 106 => 'posix-bc' );
 163  
 164      # $a is ISO 8859-1 code points
 165      from_to($a, 'latin1', $ebcdic{ord '^'});
 166      # $a is in EBCDIC code points
 167  
 168  For doing I/O it is suggested that you use the autotranslating features
 169  of PerlIO, see L<perluniintro>.
 170  
 171  Since version 5.8 Perl uses the new PerlIO I/O library.  This enables
 172  you to use different encodings per IO channel.  For example you may use
 173  
 174      use Encode;
 175      open($f, ">:encoding(ascii)", "test.ascii");
 176      print $f "Hello World!\n";
 177      open($f, ">:encoding(cp37)", "test.ebcdic");
 178      print $f "Hello World!\n";
 179      open($f, ">:encoding(latin1)", "test.latin1");
 180      print $f "Hello World!\n";
 181      open($f, ">:encoding(utf8)", "test.utf8");
 182      print $f "Hello World!\n";
 183  
 184  to get two files containing "Hello World!\n" in ASCII, CP 37 EBCDIC,
 185  ISO 8859-1 (Latin-1) (in this example identical to ASCII) respective
 186  UTF-EBCDIC (in this example identical to normal EBCDIC).  See the
 187  documentation of Encode::PerlIO for details.
 188  
 189  As the PerlIO layer uses raw IO (bytes) internally, all this totally
 190  ignores things like the type of your filesystem (ASCII or EBCDIC).
 191  
 192  =head1 SINGLE OCTET TABLES
 193  
 194  The following tables list the ASCII and Latin 1 ordered sets including
 195  the subsets: C0 controls (0..31), ASCII graphics (32..7e), delete (7f),
 196  C1 controls (80..9f), and Latin-1 (a.k.a. ISO 8859-1) (a0..ff).  In the 
 197  table non-printing control character names as well as the Latin 1 
 198  extensions to ASCII have been labelled with character names roughly 
 199  corresponding to I<The Unicode Standard, Version 3.0> albeit with 
 200  substitutions such as s/LATIN// and s/VULGAR// in all cases, 
 201  s/CAPITAL LETTER// in some cases, and s/SMALL LETTER ([A-Z])/\l$1/ 
 202  in some other cases (the C<charnames> pragma names unfortunately do 
 203  not list explicit names for the C0 or C1 control characters).  The 
 204  "names" of the C1 control set (128..159 in ISO 8859-1) listed here are 
 205  somewhat arbitrary.  The differences between the 0037 and 1047 sets are 
 206  flagged with ***.  The differences between the 1047 and POSIX-BC sets 
 207  are flagged with ###.  All ord() numbers listed are decimal.  If you 
 208  would rather see this table listing octal values then run the table 
 209  (that is, the pod version of this document since this recipe may not 
 210  work with a pod2_other_format translation) through:
 211  
 212  =over 4
 213  
 214  =item recipe 0
 215  
 216  =back
 217  
 218      perl -ne 'if(/(.{33})(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)/)' \
 219       -e '{printf("%s%-9o%-9o%-9o%o\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5)}' perlebcdic.pod
 220  
 221  If you want to retain the UTF-x code points then in script form you
 222  might want to write:
 223  
 224  =over 4
 225  
 226  =item recipe 1
 227  
 228  =back
 229  
 230      open(FH,"<perlebcdic.pod") or die "Could not open perlebcdic.pod: $!";
 231      while (<FH>) {
 232          if (/(.{33})(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\.?(\d*)\s+(\d+)\.?(\d*)/)  {
 233              if ($7 ne '' && $9 ne '') {
 234                  printf("%s%-9o%-9o%-9o%-9o%-3o.%-5o%-3o.%o\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7,$8,$9);
 235              }
 236              elsif ($7 ne '') {
 237                  printf("%s%-9o%-9o%-9o%-9o%-3o.%-5o%o\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7,$8);
 238              }
 239              else {
 240                  printf("%s%-9o%-9o%-9o%-9o%-9o%o\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$8);
 241              }
 242          }
 243      }
 244  
 245  If you would rather see this table listing hexadecimal values then
 246  run the table through:
 247  
 248  =over 4
 249  
 250  =item recipe 2
 251  
 252  =back
 253  
 254      perl -ne 'if(/(.{33})(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)/)' \
 255       -e '{printf("%s%-9X%-9X%-9X%X\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5)}' perlebcdic.pod
 256  
 257  Or, in order to retain the UTF-x code points in hexadecimal:
 258  
 259  =over 4
 260  
 261  =item recipe 3
 262  
 263  =back
 264  
 265      open(FH,"<perlebcdic.pod") or die "Could not open perlebcdic.pod: $!";
 266      while (<FH>) {
 267          if (/(.{33})(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\.?(\d*)\s+(\d+)\.?(\d*)/)  {
 268              if ($7 ne '' && $9 ne '') {
 269                  printf("%s%-9X%-9X%-9X%-9X%-2X.%-6X%-2X.%X\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7,$8,$9);
 270              }
 271              elsif ($7 ne '') {
 272                  printf("%s%-9X%-9X%-9X%-9X%-2X.%-6X%X\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7,$8);
 273              }
 274              else {
 275                  printf("%s%-9X%-9X%-9X%-9X%-9X%X\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$8);
 276              }
 277          }
 278      }
 279  
 280  
 281                                                                       incomp-  incomp-
 282                                   8859-1                              lete     lete
 283      chr                          0819     0037     1047     POSIX-BC UTF-8    UTF-EBCDIC
 284      ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 285      <NULL>                       0        0        0        0        0        0 
 286      <START OF HEADING>           1        1        1        1        1        1
 287      <START OF TEXT>              2        2        2        2        2        2
 288      <END OF TEXT>                3        3        3        3        3        3
 289      <END OF TRANSMISSION>        4        55       55       55       4        55 
 290      <ENQUIRY>                    5        45       45       45       5        45 
 291      <ACKNOWLEDGE>                6        46       46       46       6        46 
 292      <BELL>                       7        47       47       47       7        47 
 293      <BACKSPACE>                  8        22       22       22       8        22 
 294      <HORIZONTAL TABULATION>      9        5        5        5        9        5 
 295      <LINE FEED>                  10       37       21       21       10       21       ***
 296      <VERTICAL TABULATION>        11       11       11       11       11       11
 297      <FORM FEED>                  12       12       12       12       12       12
 298      <CARRIAGE RETURN>            13       13       13       13       13       13
 299      <SHIFT OUT>                  14       14       14       14       14       14
 300      <SHIFT IN>                   15       15       15       15       15       15
 301      <DATA LINK ESCAPE>           16       16       16       16       16       16
 302      <DEVICE CONTROL ONE>         17       17       17       17       17       17
 303      <DEVICE CONTROL TWO>         18       18       18       18       18       18
 304      <DEVICE CONTROL THREE>       19       19       19       19       19       19
 305      <DEVICE CONTROL FOUR>        20       60       60       60       20       60
 306      <NEGATIVE ACKNOWLEDGE>       21       61       61       61       21       61
 307      <SYNCHRONOUS IDLE>           22       50       50       50       22       50
 308      <END OF TRANSMISSION BLOCK>  23       38       38       38       23       38
 309      <CANCEL>                     24       24       24       24       24       24
 310      <END OF MEDIUM>              25       25       25       25       25       25
 311      <SUBSTITUTE>                 26       63       63       63       26       63
 312      <ESCAPE>                     27       39       39       39       27       39
 313      <FILE SEPARATOR>             28       28       28       28       28       28
 314      <GROUP SEPARATOR>            29       29       29       29       29       29
 315      <RECORD SEPARATOR>           30       30       30       30       30       30
 316      <UNIT SEPARATOR>             31       31       31       31       31       31
 317      <SPACE>                      32       64       64       64       32       64
 318      !                            33       90       90       90       33       90
 319      "                            34       127      127      127      34       127
 320      #                            35       123      123      123      35       123
 321      $                            36       91       91       91       36       91
 322      %                            37       108      108      108      37       108
 323      &                            38       80       80       80       38       80
 324      '                            39       125      125      125      39       125
 325      (                            40       77       77       77       40       77
 326      )                            41       93       93       93       41       93
 327      *                            42       92       92       92       42       92
 328      +                            43       78       78       78       43       78
 329      ,                            44       107      107      107      44       107
 330      -                            45       96       96       96       45       96
 331      .                            46       75       75       75       46       75
 332      /                            47       97       97       97       47       97
 333      0                            48       240      240      240      48       240
 334      1                            49       241      241      241      49       241
 335      2                            50       242      242      242      50       242
 336      3                            51       243      243      243      51       243
 337      4                            52       244      244      244      52       244
 338      5                            53       245      245      245      53       245
 339      6                            54       246      246      246      54       246
 340      7                            55       247      247      247      55       247
 341      8                            56       248      248      248      56       248
 342      9                            57       249      249      249      57       249
 343      :                            58       122      122      122      58       122
 344      ;                            59       94       94       94       59       94
 345      <                            60       76       76       76       60       76
 346      =                            61       126      126      126      61       126
 347      >                            62       110      110      110      62       110
 348      ?                            63       111      111      111      63       111
 349      @                            64       124      124      124      64       124
 350      A                            65       193      193      193      65       193
 351      B                            66       194      194      194      66       194
 352      C                            67       195      195      195      67       195
 353      D                            68       196      196      196      68       196
 354      E                            69       197      197      197      69       197
 355      F                            70       198      198      198      70       198
 356      G                            71       199      199      199      71       199
 357      H                            72       200      200      200      72       200
 358      I                            73       201      201      201      73       201
 359      J                            74       209      209      209      74       209
 360      K                            75       210      210      210      75       210
 361      L                            76       211      211      211      76       211
 362      M                            77       212      212      212      77       212
 363      N                            78       213      213      213      78       213
 364      O                            79       214      214      214      79       214
 365      P                            80       215      215      215      80       215
 366      Q                            81       216      216      216      81       216
 367      R                            82       217      217      217      82       217
 368      S                            83       226      226      226      83       226
 369      T                            84       227      227      227      84       227
 370      U                            85       228      228      228      85       228
 371      V                            86       229      229      229      86       229
 372      W                            87       230      230      230      87       230
 373      X                            88       231      231      231      88       231
 374      Y                            89       232      232      232      89       232
 375      Z                            90       233      233      233      90       233
 376      [                            91       186      173      187      91       173      *** ###
 377      \                            92       224      224      188      92       224      ### 
 378      ]                            93       187      189      189      93       189      ***
 379      ^                            94       176      95       106      94       95       *** ###
 380      _                            95       109      109      109      95       109
 381      `                            96       121      121      74       96       121      ###
 382      a                            97       129      129      129      97       129
 383      b                            98       130      130      130      98       130
 384      c                            99       131      131      131      99       131
 385      d                            100      132      132      132      100      132
 386      e                            101      133      133      133      101      133
 387      f                            102      134      134      134      102      134
 388      g                            103      135      135      135      103      135
 389      h                            104      136      136      136      104      136
 390      i                            105      137      137      137      105      137
 391      j                            106      145      145      145      106      145
 392      k                            107      146      146      146      107      146
 393      l                            108      147      147      147      108      147
 394      m                            109      148      148      148      109      148
 395      n                            110      149      149      149      110      149
 396      o                            111      150      150      150      111      150
 397      p                            112      151      151      151      112      151
 398      q                            113      152      152      152      113      152
 399      r                            114      153      153      153      114      153
 400      s                            115      162      162      162      115      162
 401      t                            116      163      163      163      116      163
 402      u                            117      164      164      164      117      164
 403      v                            118      165      165      165      118      165
 404      w                            119      166      166      166      119      166
 405      x                            120      167      167      167      120      167
 406      y                            121      168      168      168      121      168
 407      z                            122      169      169      169      122      169
 408      {                            123      192      192      251      123      192      ###
 409      |                            124      79       79       79       124      79
 410      }                            125      208      208      253      125      208      ###
 411      ~                            126      161      161      255      126      161      ###
 412      <DELETE>                     127      7        7        7        127      7
 413      <C1 0>                       128      32       32       32       194.128  32
 414      <C1 1>                       129      33       33       33       194.129  33
 415      <C1 2>                       130      34       34       34       194.130  34
 416      <C1 3>                       131      35       35       35       194.131  35
 417      <C1 4>                       132      36       36       36       194.132  36
 418      <C1 5>                       133      21       37       37       194.133  37       ***
 419      <C1 6>                       134      6        6        6        194.134  6
 420      <C1 7>                       135      23       23       23       194.135  23
 421      <C1 8>                       136      40       40       40       194.136  40
 422      <C1 9>                       137      41       41       41       194.137  41
 423      <C1 10>                      138      42       42       42       194.138  42
 424      <C1 11>                      139      43       43       43       194.139  43
 425      <C1 12>                      140      44       44       44       194.140  44
 426      <C1 13>                      141      9        9        9        194.141  9
 427      <C1 14>                      142      10       10       10       194.142  10
 428      <C1 15>                      143      27       27       27       194.143  27
 429      <C1 16>                      144      48       48       48       194.144  48
 430      <C1 17>                      145      49       49       49       194.145  49
 431      <C1 18>                      146      26       26       26       194.146  26
 432      <C1 19>                      147      51       51       51       194.147  51
 433      <C1 20>                      148      52       52       52       194.148  52
 434      <C1 21>                      149      53       53       53       194.149  53
 435      <C1 22>                      150      54       54       54       194.150  54
 436      <C1 23>                      151      8        8        8        194.151  8
 437      <C1 24>                      152      56       56       56       194.152  56
 438      <C1 25>                      153      57       57       57       194.153  57
 439      <C1 26>                      154      58       58       58       194.154  58
 440      <C1 27>                      155      59       59       59       194.155  59
 441      <C1 28>                      156      4        4        4        194.156  4
 442      <C1 29>                      157      20       20       20       194.157  20
 443      <C1 30>                      158      62       62       62       194.158  62
 444      <C1 31>                      159      255      255      95       194.159  255      ###
 445      <NON-BREAKING SPACE>         160      65       65       65       194.160  128.65
 446      <INVERTED EXCLAMATION MARK>  161      170      170      170      194.161  128.66
 447      <CENT SIGN>                  162      74       74       176      194.162  128.67   ###
 448      <POUND SIGN>                 163      177      177      177      194.163  128.68
 449      <CURRENCY SIGN>              164      159      159      159      194.164  128.69
 450      <YEN SIGN>                   165      178      178      178      194.165  128.70
 451      <BROKEN BAR>                 166      106      106      208      194.166  128.71   ###
 452      <SECTION SIGN>               167      181      181      181      194.167  128.72
 453      <DIAERESIS>                  168      189      187      121      194.168  128.73   *** ###
 454      <COPYRIGHT SIGN>             169      180      180      180      194.169  128.74
 455      <FEMININE ORDINAL INDICATOR> 170      154      154      154      194.170  128.81
 456      <LEFT POINTING GUILLEMET>    171      138      138      138      194.171  128.82
 457      <NOT SIGN>                   172      95       176      186      194.172  128.83   *** ###
 458      <SOFT HYPHEN>                173      202      202      202      194.173  128.84
 459      <REGISTERED TRADE MARK SIGN> 174      175      175      175      194.174  128.85
 460      <MACRON>                     175      188      188      161      194.175  128.86   ###
 461      <DEGREE SIGN>                176      144      144      144      194.176  128.87
 462      <PLUS-OR-MINUS SIGN>         177      143      143      143      194.177  128.88
 463      <SUPERSCRIPT TWO>            178      234      234      234      194.178  128.89
 464      <SUPERSCRIPT THREE>          179      250      250      250      194.179  128.98
 465      <ACUTE ACCENT>               180      190      190      190      194.180  128.99
 466      <MICRO SIGN>                 181      160      160      160      194.181  128.100
 467      <PARAGRAPH SIGN>             182      182      182      182      194.182  128.101
 468      <MIDDLE DOT>                 183      179      179      179      194.183  128.102
 469      <CEDILLA>                    184      157      157      157      194.184  128.103
 470      <SUPERSCRIPT ONE>            185      218      218      218      194.185  128.104
 471      <MASC. ORDINAL INDICATOR>    186      155      155      155      194.186  128.105
 472      <RIGHT POINTING GUILLEMET>   187      139      139      139      194.187  128.106
 473      <FRACTION ONE QUARTER>       188      183      183      183      194.188  128.112
 474      <FRACTION ONE HALF>          189      184      184      184      194.189  128.113
 475      <FRACTION THREE QUARTERS>    190      185      185      185      194.190  128.114
 476      <INVERTED QUESTION MARK>     191      171      171      171      194.191  128.115
 477      <A WITH GRAVE>               192      100      100      100      195.128  138.65
 478      <A WITH ACUTE>               193      101      101      101      195.129  138.66
 479      <A WITH CIRCUMFLEX>          194      98       98       98       195.130  138.67
 480      <A WITH TILDE>               195      102      102      102      195.131  138.68
 481      <A WITH DIAERESIS>           196      99       99       99       195.132  138.69
 482      <A WITH RING ABOVE>          197      103      103      103      195.133  138.70
 483      <CAPITAL LIGATURE AE>        198      158      158      158      195.134  138.71
 484      <C WITH CEDILLA>             199      104      104      104      195.135  138.72
 485      <E WITH GRAVE>               200      116      116      116      195.136  138.73
 486      <E WITH ACUTE>               201      113      113      113      195.137  138.74
 487      <E WITH CIRCUMFLEX>          202      114      114      114      195.138  138.81
 488      <E WITH DIAERESIS>           203      115      115      115      195.139  138.82
 489      <I WITH GRAVE>               204      120      120      120      195.140  138.83
 490      <I WITH ACUTE>               205      117      117      117      195.141  138.84
 491      <I WITH CIRCUMFLEX>          206      118      118      118      195.142  138.85
 492      <I WITH DIAERESIS>           207      119      119      119      195.143  138.86
 493      <CAPITAL LETTER ETH>         208      172      172      172      195.144  138.87
 494      <N WITH TILDE>               209      105      105      105      195.145  138.88
 495      <O WITH GRAVE>               210      237      237      237      195.146  138.89
 496      <O WITH ACUTE>               211      238      238      238      195.147  138.98
 497      <O WITH CIRCUMFLEX>          212      235      235      235      195.148  138.99
 498      <O WITH TILDE>               213      239      239      239      195.149  138.100
 499      <O WITH DIAERESIS>           214      236      236      236      195.150  138.101
 500      <MULTIPLICATION SIGN>        215      191      191      191      195.151  138.102
 501      <O WITH STROKE>              216      128      128      128      195.152  138.103
 502      <U WITH GRAVE>               217      253      253      224      195.153  138.104  ###
 503      <U WITH ACUTE>               218      254      254      254      195.154  138.105
 504      <U WITH CIRCUMFLEX>          219      251      251      221      195.155  138.106  ###
 505      <U WITH DIAERESIS>           220      252      252      252      195.156  138.112
 506      <Y WITH ACUTE>               221      173      186      173      195.157  138.113  *** ###
 507      <CAPITAL LETTER THORN>       222      174      174      174      195.158  138.114
 508      <SMALL LETTER SHARP S>       223      89       89       89       195.159  138.115
 509      <a WITH GRAVE>               224      68       68       68       195.160  139.65
 510      <a WITH ACUTE>               225      69       69       69       195.161  139.66
 511      <a WITH CIRCUMFLEX>          226      66       66       66       195.162  139.67
 512      <a WITH TILDE>               227      70       70       70       195.163  139.68
 513      <a WITH DIAERESIS>           228      67       67       67       195.164  139.69
 514      <a WITH RING ABOVE>          229      71       71       71       195.165  139.70
 515      <SMALL LIGATURE ae>          230      156      156      156      195.166  139.71
 516      <c WITH CEDILLA>             231      72       72       72       195.167  139.72
 517      <e WITH GRAVE>               232      84       84       84       195.168  139.73
 518      <e WITH ACUTE>               233      81       81       81       195.169  139.74
 519      <e WITH CIRCUMFLEX>          234      82       82       82       195.170  139.81
 520      <e WITH DIAERESIS>           235      83       83       83       195.171  139.82
 521      <i WITH GRAVE>               236      88       88       88       195.172  139.83
 522      <i WITH ACUTE>               237      85       85       85       195.173  139.84
 523      <i WITH CIRCUMFLEX>          238      86       86       86       195.174  139.85
 524      <i WITH DIAERESIS>           239      87       87       87       195.175  139.86
 525      <SMALL LETTER eth>           240      140      140      140      195.176  139.87
 526      <n WITH TILDE>               241      73       73       73       195.177  139.88
 527      <o WITH GRAVE>               242      205      205      205      195.178  139.89
 528      <o WITH ACUTE>               243      206      206      206      195.179  139.98
 529      <o WITH CIRCUMFLEX>          244      203      203      203      195.180  139.99
 530      <o WITH TILDE>               245      207      207      207      195.181  139.100
 531      <o WITH DIAERESIS>           246      204      204      204      195.182  139.101
 532      <DIVISION SIGN>              247      225      225      225      195.183  139.102
 533      <o WITH STROKE>              248      112      112      112      195.184  139.103
 534      <u WITH GRAVE>               249      221      221      192      195.185  139.104  ###
 535      <u WITH ACUTE>               250      222      222      222      195.186  139.105
 536      <u WITH CIRCUMFLEX>          251      219      219      219      195.187  139.106
 537      <u WITH DIAERESIS>           252      220      220      220      195.188  139.112
 538      <y WITH ACUTE>               253      141      141      141      195.189  139.113
 539      <SMALL LETTER thorn>         254      142      142      142      195.190  139.114
 540      <y WITH DIAERESIS>           255      223      223      223      195.191  139.115
 541  
 542  If you would rather see the above table in CCSID 0037 order rather than
 543  ASCII + Latin-1 order then run the table through:
 544  
 545  =over 4
 546  
 547  =item recipe 4
 548  
 549  =back
 550  
 551      perl -ne 'if(/.{33}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}/)'\
 552       -e '{push(@l,$_)}' \
 553       -e 'END{print map{$_->[0]}' \
 554       -e '          sort{$a->[1] <=> $b->[1]}' \
 555       -e '          map{[$_,substr($_,42,3)]}@l;}' perlebcdic.pod
 556  
 557  If you would rather see it in CCSID 1047 order then change the digit
 558  42 in the last line to 51, like this:
 559  
 560  =over 4
 561  
 562  =item recipe 5
 563  
 564  =back
 565  
 566      perl -ne 'if(/.{33}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}/)'\
 567       -e '{push(@l,$_)}' \
 568       -e 'END{print map{$_->[0]}' \
 569       -e '          sort{$a->[1] <=> $b->[1]}' \
 570       -e '          map{[$_,substr($_,51,3)]}@l;}' perlebcdic.pod
 571  
 572  If you would rather see it in POSIX-BC order then change the digit
 573  51 in the last line to 60, like this:
 574  
 575  =over 4
 576  
 577  =item recipe 6
 578  
 579  =back
 580  
 581      perl -ne 'if(/.{33}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}/)'\
 582       -e '{push(@l,$_)}' \
 583       -e 'END{print map{$_->[0]}' \
 584       -e '          sort{$a->[1] <=> $b->[1]}' \
 585       -e '          map{[$_,substr($_,60,3)]}@l;}' perlebcdic.pod
 586  
 587  
 588  =head1 IDENTIFYING CHARACTER CODE SETS
 589  
 590  To determine the character set you are running under from perl one 
 591  could use the return value of ord() or chr() to test one or more 
 592  character values.  For example:
 593  
 594      $is_ascii  = "A" eq chr(65);
 595      $is_ebcdic = "A" eq chr(193);
 596  
 597  Also, "\t" is a C<HORIZONTAL TABULATION> character so that:
 598  
 599      $is_ascii  = ord("\t") == 9;
 600      $is_ebcdic = ord("\t") == 5;
 601  
 602  To distinguish EBCDIC code pages try looking at one or more of
 603  the characters that differ between them.  For example:
 604  
 605      $is_ebcdic_37   = "\n" eq chr(37);
 606      $is_ebcdic_1047 = "\n" eq chr(21);
 607  
 608  Or better still choose a character that is uniquely encoded in any
 609  of the code sets, e.g.:
 610  
 611      $is_ascii           = ord('[') == 91;
 612      $is_ebcdic_37       = ord('[') == 186;
 613      $is_ebcdic_1047     = ord('[') == 173;
 614      $is_ebcdic_POSIX_BC = ord('[') == 187;
 615  
 616  However, it would be unwise to write tests such as:
 617  
 618      $is_ascii = "\r" ne chr(13);  #  WRONG
 619      $is_ascii = "\n" ne chr(10);  #  ILL ADVISED
 620  
 621  Obviously the first of these will fail to distinguish most ASCII machines
 622  from either a CCSID 0037, a 1047, or a POSIX-BC EBCDIC machine since "\r" eq 
 623  chr(13) under all of those coded character sets.  But note too that 
 624  because "\n" is chr(13) and "\r" is chr(10) on the MacIntosh (which is an 
 625  ASCII machine) the second C<$is_ascii> test will lead to trouble there.
 626  
 627  To determine whether or not perl was built under an EBCDIC 
 628  code page you can use the Config module like so:
 629  
 630      use Config;
 631      $is_ebcdic = $Config{'ebcdic'} eq 'define';
 632  
 633  =head1 CONVERSIONS
 634  
 635  =head2 tr///
 636  
 637  In order to convert a string of characters from one character set to 
 638  another a simple list of numbers, such as in the right columns in the
 639  above table, along with perl's tr/// operator is all that is needed.  
 640  The data in the table are in ASCII order hence the EBCDIC columns 
 641  provide easy to use ASCII to EBCDIC operations that are also easily 
 642  reversed.
 643  
 644  For example, to convert ASCII to code page 037 take the output of the second 
 645  column from the output of recipe 0 (modified to add \\ characters) and use 
 646  it in tr/// like so:
 647  
 648      $cp_037 = 
 649      '\000\001\002\003\234\011\206\177\227\215\216\013\014\015\016\017' .
 650      '\020\021\022\023\235\205\010\207\030\031\222\217\034\035\036\037' .
 651      '\200\201\202\203\204\012\027\033\210\211\212\213\214\005\006\007' .
 652      '\220\221\026\223\224\225\226\004\230\231\232\233\024\025\236\032' .
 653      '\040\240\342\344\340\341\343\345\347\361\242\056\074\050\053\174' .
 654      '\046\351\352\353\350\355\356\357\354\337\041\044\052\051\073\254' .
 655      '\055\057\302\304\300\301\303\305\307\321\246\054\045\137\076\077' .
 656      '\370\311\312\313\310\315\316\317\314\140\072\043\100\047\075\042' .
 657      '\330\141\142\143\144\145\146\147\150\151\253\273\360\375\376\261' .
 658      '\260\152\153\154\155\156\157\160\161\162\252\272\346\270\306\244' .
 659      '\265\176\163\164\165\166\167\170\171\172\241\277\320\335\336\256' .
 660      '\136\243\245\267\251\247\266\274\275\276\133\135\257\250\264\327' .
 661      '\173\101\102\103\104\105\106\107\110\111\255\364\366\362\363\365' .
 662      '\175\112\113\114\115\116\117\120\121\122\271\373\374\371\372\377' .
 663      '\134\367\123\124\125\126\127\130\131\132\262\324\326\322\323\325' .
 664      '\060\061\062\063\064\065\066\067\070\071\263\333\334\331\332\237' ;
 665  
 666      my $ebcdic_string = $ascii_string;
 667      eval '$ebcdic_string =~ tr/' . $cp_037 . '/\000-\377/';
 668  
 669  To convert from EBCDIC 037 to ASCII just reverse the order of the tr/// 
 670  arguments like so:
 671  
 672      my $ascii_string = $ebcdic_string;
 673      eval '$ascii_string =~ tr/\000-\377/' . $cp_037 . '/';
 674  
 675  Similarly one could take the output of the third column from recipe 0 to
 676  obtain a C<$cp_1047> table.  The fourth column of the output from recipe
 677  0 could provide a C<$cp_posix_bc> table suitable for transcoding as well.
 678  
 679  =head2 iconv
 680  
 681  XPG operability often implies the presence of an I<iconv> utility
 682  available from the shell or from the C library.  Consult your system's
 683  documentation for information on iconv.
 684  
 685  On OS/390 or z/OS see the iconv(1) manpage.  One way to invoke the iconv 
 686  shell utility from within perl would be to:
 687  
 688      # OS/390 or z/OS example
 689      $ascii_data = `echo '$ebcdic_data'| iconv -f IBM-1047 -t ISO8859-1`
 690  
 691  or the inverse map:
 692  
 693      # OS/390 or z/OS example
 694      $ebcdic_data = `echo '$ascii_data'| iconv -f ISO8859-1 -t IBM-1047`
 695  
 696  For other perl based conversion options see the Convert::* modules on CPAN.
 697  
 698  =head2 C RTL
 699  
 700  The OS/390 and z/OS C run time libraries provide _atoe() and _etoa() functions.
 701  
 702  =head1 OPERATOR DIFFERENCES
 703  
 704  The C<..> range operator treats certain character ranges with 
 705  care on EBCDIC machines.  For example the following array
 706  will have twenty six elements on either an EBCDIC machine
 707  or an ASCII machine:
 708  
 709      @alphabet = ('A'..'Z');   #  $#alphabet == 25
 710  
 711  The bitwise operators such as & ^ | may return different results
 712  when operating on string or character data in a perl program running 
 713  on an EBCDIC machine than when run on an ASCII machine.  Here is
 714  an example adapted from the one in L<perlop>:
 715  
 716      # EBCDIC-based examples
 717      print "j p \n" ^ " a h";                      # prints "JAPH\n"
 718      print "JA" | "  ph\n";                        # prints "japh\n" 
 719      print "JAPH\nJunk" & "\277\277\277\277\277";  # prints "japh\n";
 720      print 'p N$' ^ " E<H\n";                      # prints "Perl\n";
 721  
 722  An interesting property of the 32 C0 control characters
 723  in the ASCII table is that they can "literally" be constructed
 724  as control characters in perl, e.g. C<(chr(0) eq "\c@")> 
 725  C<(chr(1) eq "\cA")>, and so on.  Perl on EBCDIC machines has been 
 726  ported to take "\c@" to chr(0) and "\cA" to chr(1) as well, but the
 727  thirty three characters that result depend on which code page you are
 728  using.  The table below uses the character names from the previous table 
 729  but with substitutions such as s/START OF/S.O./; s/END OF /E.O./; 
 730  s/TRANSMISSION/TRANS./; s/TABULATION/TAB./; s/VERTICAL/VERT./; 
 731  s/HORIZONTAL/HORIZ./; s/DEVICE CONTROL/D.C./; s/SEPARATOR/SEP./; 
 732  s/NEGATIVE ACKNOWLEDGE/NEG. ACK./;.  The POSIX-BC and 1047 sets are
 733  identical throughout this range and differ from the 0037 set at only 
 734  one spot (21 decimal).  Note that the C<LINE FEED> character
 735  may be generated by "\cJ" on ASCII machines but by "\cU" on 1047 or POSIX-BC 
 736  machines and cannot be generated as a C<"\c.letter."> control character on 
 737  0037 machines.  Note also that "\c\\" maps to two characters
 738  not one.
 739  
 740      chr   ord  8859-1               0037                1047 && POSIX-BC     
 741      ------------------------------------------------------------------------
 742      "\c?" 127  <DELETE>             "                   "              ***><
 743      "\c@"   0  <NULL>               <NULL>              <NULL>         ***><
 744      "\cA"   1  <S.O. HEADING>       <S.O. HEADING>      <S.O. HEADING> 
 745      "\cB"   2  <S.O. TEXT>          <S.O. TEXT>         <S.O. TEXT>
 746      "\cC"   3  <E.O. TEXT>          <E.O. TEXT>         <E.O. TEXT>
 747      "\cD"   4  <E.O. TRANS.>        <C1 28>             <C1 28> 
 748      "\cE"   5  <ENQUIRY>            <HORIZ. TAB.>       <HORIZ. TAB.>    
 749      "\cF"   6  <ACKNOWLEDGE>        <C1 6>              <C1 6>   
 750      "\cG"   7  <BELL>               <DELETE>            <DELETE>   
 751      "\cH"   8  <BACKSPACE>          <C1 23>             <C1 23>
 752      "\cI"   9  <HORIZ. TAB.>        <C1 13>             <C1 13>
 753      "\cJ"  10  <LINE FEED>          <C1 14>             <C1 14>
 754      "\cK"  11  <VERT. TAB.>         <VERT. TAB.>        <VERT. TAB.>
 755      "\cL"  12  <FORM FEED>          <FORM FEED>         <FORM FEED>    
 756      "\cM"  13  <CARRIAGE RETURN>    <CARRIAGE RETURN>   <CARRIAGE RETURN> 
 757      "\cN"  14  <SHIFT OUT>          <SHIFT OUT>         <SHIFT OUT>
 758      "\cO"  15  <SHIFT IN>           <SHIFT IN>          <SHIFT IN>
 759      "\cP"  16  <DATA LINK ESCAPE>   <DATA LINK ESCAPE>  <DATA LINK ESCAPE> 
 760      "\cQ"  17  <D.C. ONE>           <D.C. ONE>          <D.C. ONE>
 761      "\cR"  18  <D.C. TWO>           <D.C. TWO>          <D.C. TWO>
 762      "\cS"  19  <D.C. THREE>         <D.C. THREE>        <D.C. THREE> 
 763      "\cT"  20  <D.C. FOUR>          <C1 29>             <C1 29> 
 764      "\cU"  21  <NEG. ACK.>          <C1 5>              <LINE FEED>    ***
 765      "\cV"  22  <SYNCHRONOUS IDLE>   <BACKSPACE>         <BACKSPACE>
 766      "\cW"  23  <E.O. TRANS. BLOCK>  <C1 7>              <C1 7>
 767      "\cX"  24  <CANCEL>             <CANCEL>            <CANCEL>
 768      "\cY"  25  <E.O. MEDIUM>        <E.O. MEDIUM>       <E.O. MEDIUM>
 769      "\cZ"  26  <SUBSTITUTE>         <C1 18>             <C1 18>
 770      "\c["  27  <ESCAPE>             <C1 15>             <C1 15>
 771      "\c\\" 28  <FILE SEP.>\         <FILE SEP.>\        <FILE SEP.>\
 772      "\c]"  29  <GROUP SEP.>         <GROUP SEP.>        <GROUP SEP.>
 773      "\c^"  30  <RECORD SEP.>        <RECORD SEP.>       <RECORD SEP.>  ***><
 774      "\c_"  31  <UNIT SEP.>          <UNIT SEP.>         <UNIT SEP.>    ***><
 775  
 776  
 777  =head1 FUNCTION DIFFERENCES
 778  
 779  =over 8
 780  
 781  =item chr()
 782  
 783  chr() must be given an EBCDIC code number argument to yield a desired 
 784  character return value on an EBCDIC machine.  For example:
 785  
 786      $CAPITAL_LETTER_A = chr(193);
 787  
 788  =item ord()
 789  
 790  ord() will return EBCDIC code number values on an EBCDIC machine.
 791  For example:
 792  
 793      $the_number_193 = ord("A");
 794  
 795  =item pack()
 796  
 797  The c and C templates for pack() are dependent upon character set 
 798  encoding.  Examples of usage on EBCDIC include:
 799  
 800      $foo = pack("CCCC",193,194,195,196);
 801      # $foo eq "ABCD"
 802      $foo = pack("C4",193,194,195,196);
 803      # same thing
 804  
 805      $foo = pack("ccxxcc",193,194,195,196);
 806      # $foo eq "AB\0\0CD"
 807  
 808  =item print()
 809  
 810  One must be careful with scalars and strings that are passed to
 811  print that contain ASCII encodings.  One common place
 812  for this to occur is in the output of the MIME type header for
 813  CGI script writing.  For example, many perl programming guides 
 814  recommend something similar to:
 815  
 816      print "Content-type:\ttext/html\015\012\015\012"; 
 817      # this may be wrong on EBCDIC
 818  
 819  Under the IBM OS/390 USS Web Server or WebSphere on z/OS for example 
 820  you should instead write that as:
 821  
 822      print "Content-type:\ttext/html\r\n\r\n"; # OK for DGW et alia
 823  
 824  That is because the translation from EBCDIC to ASCII is done
 825  by the web server in this case (such code will not be appropriate for
 826  the Macintosh however).  Consult your web server's documentation for 
 827  further details.
 828  
 829  =item printf()
 830  
 831  The formats that can convert characters to numbers and vice versa
 832  will be different from their ASCII counterparts when executed
 833  on an EBCDIC machine.  Examples include:
 834  
 835      printf("%c%c%c",193,194,195);  # prints ABC
 836  
 837  =item sort()
 838  
 839  EBCDIC sort results may differ from ASCII sort results especially for 
 840  mixed case strings.  This is discussed in more detail below.
 841  
 842  =item sprintf()
 843  
 844  See the discussion of printf() above.  An example of the use
 845  of sprintf would be:
 846  
 847      $CAPITAL_LETTER_A = sprintf("%c",193);
 848  
 849  =item unpack()
 850  
 851  See the discussion of pack() above.
 852  
 853  =back
 854  
 855  =head1 REGULAR EXPRESSION DIFFERENCES
 856  
 857  As of perl 5.005_03 the letter range regular expression such as 
 858  [A-Z] and [a-z] have been especially coded to not pick up gap 
 859  characters.  For example, characters such as E<ocirc> C<o WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 
 860  that lie between I and J would not be matched by the 
 861  regular expression range C</[H-K]/>.  This works in
 862  the other direction, too, if either of the range end points is
 863  explicitly numeric: C<[\x89-\x91]> will match C<\x8e>, even
 864  though C<\x89> is C<i> and C<\x91 > is C<j>, and C<\x8e>
 865  is a gap character from the alphabetic viewpoint.
 866  
 867  If you do want to match the alphabet gap characters in a single octet 
 868  regular expression try matching the hex or octal code such 
 869  as C</\313/> on EBCDIC or C</\364/> on ASCII machines to 
 870  have your regular expression match C<o WITH CIRCUMFLEX>.
 871  
 872  Another construct to be wary of is the inappropriate use of hex or
 873  octal constants in regular expressions.  Consider the following
 874  set of subs:
 875  
 876      sub is_c0 {
 877          my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
 878          $char =~ /[\000-\037]/;
 879      }
 880  
 881      sub is_print_ascii {
 882          my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
 883          $char =~ /[\040-\176]/;
 884      }
 885  
 886      sub is_delete {
 887          my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
 888          $char eq "\177";
 889      }
 890  
 891      sub is_c1 {
 892          my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
 893          $char =~ /[\200-\237]/;
 894      }
 895  
 896      sub is_latin_1 {
 897          my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
 898          $char =~ /[\240-\377]/;
 899      }
 900  
 901  The above would be adequate if the concern was only with numeric code points.
 902  However, the concern may be with characters rather than code points 
 903  and on an EBCDIC machine it may be desirable for constructs such as 
 904  C<if (is_print_ascii("A")) {print "A is a printable character\n";}> to print
 905  out the expected message.  One way to represent the above collection
 906  of character classification subs that is capable of working across the
 907  four coded character sets discussed in this document is as follows:
 908  
 909      sub Is_c0 {
 910          my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
 911          if (ord('^')==94)  { # ascii
 912              return $char =~ /[\000-\037]/;
 913          } 
 914          if (ord('^')==176) { # 37
 915              return $char =~ /[\000-\003\067\055-\057\026\005\045\013-\023\074\075\062\046\030\031\077\047\034-\037]/;
 916          }
 917          if (ord('^')==95 || ord('^')==106) { # 1047 || posix-bc
 918              return $char =~ /[\000-\003\067\055-\057\026\005\025\013-\023\074\075\062\046\030\031\077\047\034-\037]/;
 919          }
 920      }
 921  
 922      sub Is_print_ascii {
 923          my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
 924          $char =~ /[ !"\#\$%&'()*+,\-.\/0-9:;<=>?\@A-Z[\\\]^_`a-z{|}~]/;
 925      }
 926  
 927      sub Is_delete {
 928          my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
 929          if (ord('^')==94)  { # ascii
 930              return $char eq "\177";
 931          }
 932          else  {              # ebcdic
 933              return $char eq "\007";
 934          }
 935      }
 936  
 937      sub Is_c1 {
 938          my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
 939          if (ord('^')==94)  { # ascii
 940              return $char =~ /[\200-\237]/;
 941          }
 942          if (ord('^')==176) { # 37
 943              return $char =~ /[\040-\044\025\006\027\050-\054\011\012\033\060\061\032\063-\066\010\070-\073\040\024\076\377]/;
 944          }
 945          if (ord('^')==95)  { # 1047
 946              return $char =~ /[\040-\045\006\027\050-\054\011\012\033\060\061\032\063-\066\010\070-\073\040\024\076\377]/;
 947          }
 948          if (ord('^')==106) { # posix-bc
 949              return $char =~ 
 950                /[\040-\045\006\027\050-\054\011\012\033\060\061\032\063-\066\010\070-\073\040\024\076\137]/;
 951          }
 952      }
 953  
 954      sub Is_latin_1 {
 955          my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
 956          if (ord('^')==94)  { # ascii
 957              return $char =~ /[\240-\377]/;
 958          }
 959          if (ord('^')==176) { # 37
 960              return $char =~ 
 961                /[\101\252\112\261\237\262\152\265\275\264\232\212\137\312\257\274\220\217\352\372\276\240\266\263\235\332\233\213\267\270\271\253\144\145\142\146\143\147\236\150\164\161-\163\170\165-\167\254\151\355\356\353\357\354\277\200\375\376\373\374\255\256\131\104\105\102\106\103\107\234\110\124\121-\123\130\125-\127\214\111\315\316\313\317\314\341\160\335\336\333\334\215\216\337]/;
 962          }
 963          if (ord('^')==95)  { # 1047
 964              return $char =~
 965                /[\101\252\112\261\237\262\152\265\273\264\232\212\260\312\257\274\220\217\352\372\276\240\266\263\235\332\233\213\267\270\271\253\144\145\142\146\143\147\236\150\164\161-\163\170\165-\167\254\151\355\356\353\357\354\277\200\375\376\373\374\272\256\131\104\105\102\106\103\107\234\110\124\121-\123\130\125-\127\214\111\315\316\313\317\314\341\160\335\336\333\334\215\216\337]/; 
 966          }
 967          if (ord('^')==106) { # posix-bc
 968              return $char =~ 
 969                /[\101\252\260\261\237\262\320\265\171\264\232\212\272\312\257\241\220\217\352\372\276\240\266\263\235\332\233\213\267\270\271\253\144\145\142\146\143\147\236\150\164\161-\163\170\165-\167\254\151\355\356\353\357\354\277\200\340\376\335\374\255\256\131\104\105\102\106\103\107\234\110\124\121-\123\130\125-\127\214\111\315\316\313\317\314\341\160\300\336\333\334\215\216\337]/;
 970          }
 971      }
 972  
 973  Note however that only the C<Is_ascii_print()> sub is really independent 
 974  of coded character set.  Another way to write C<Is_latin_1()> would be 
 975  to use the characters in the range explicitly:
 976  
 977      sub Is_latin_1 {
 978          my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
 979          $char =~ /[]/;
 980      }
 981  
 982  Although that form may run into trouble in network transit (due to the 
 983  presence of 8 bit characters) or on non ISO-Latin character sets.
 984  
 985  =head1 SOCKETS
 986  
 987  Most socket programming assumes ASCII character encodings in network
 988  byte order.  Exceptions can include CGI script writing under a
 989  host web server where the server may take care of translation for you.
 990  Most host web servers convert EBCDIC data to ISO-8859-1 or Unicode on
 991  output.
 992  
 993  =head1 SORTING
 994  
 995  One big difference between ASCII based character sets and EBCDIC ones
 996  are the relative positions of upper and lower case letters and the
 997  letters compared to the digits.  If sorted on an ASCII based machine the
 998  two letter abbreviation for a physician comes before the two letter
 999  for drive, that is:
1000  
1001      @sorted = sort(qw(Dr. dr.));  # @sorted holds ('Dr.','dr.') on ASCII,
1002                                    # but ('dr.','Dr.') on EBCDIC
1003  
1004  The property of lower case before uppercase letters in EBCDIC is
1005  even carried to the Latin 1 EBCDIC pages such as 0037 and 1047.
1006  An example would be that E<Euml> C<E WITH DIAERESIS> (203) comes 
1007  before E<euml> C<e WITH DIAERESIS> (235) on an ASCII machine, but 
1008  the latter (83) comes before the former (115) on an EBCDIC machine.  
1009  (Astute readers will note that the upper case version of E<szlig> 
1010  C<SMALL LETTER SHARP S> is simply "SS" and that the upper case version of 
1011  E<yuml> C<y WITH DIAERESIS> is not in the 0..255 range but it is 
1012  at U+x0178 in Unicode, or C<"\x{178}"> in a Unicode enabled Perl).
1013  
1014  The sort order will cause differences between results obtained on
1015  ASCII machines versus EBCDIC machines.  What follows are some suggestions
1016  on how to deal with these differences.
1017  
1018  =head2 Ignore ASCII vs. EBCDIC sort differences.
1019  
1020  This is the least computationally expensive strategy.  It may require
1021  some user education.
1022  
1023  =head2 MONO CASE then sort data.
1024  
1025  In order to minimize the expense of mono casing mixed test try to
1026  C<tr///> towards the character set case most employed within the data.
1027  If the data are primarily UPPERCASE non Latin 1 then apply tr/[a-z]/[A-Z]/
1028  then sort().  If the data are primarily lowercase non Latin 1 then
1029  apply tr/[A-Z]/[a-z]/ before sorting.  If the data are primarily UPPERCASE
1030  and include Latin-1 characters then apply:  
1031  
1032      tr/[a-z]/[A-Z]/; 
1033      tr/[]/[]/;
1034      s//SS/g; 
1035  
1036  then sort().  Do note however that such Latin-1 manipulation does not 
1037  address the E<yuml> C<y WITH DIAERESIS> character that will remain at 
1038  code point 255 on ASCII machines, but 223 on most EBCDIC machines 
1039  where it will sort to a place less than the EBCDIC numerals.  With a 
1040  Unicode enabled Perl you might try:
1041  
1042      tr/^?/\x{178}/;
1043  
1044  The strategy of mono casing data before sorting does not preserve the case 
1045  of the data and may not be acceptable for that reason.
1046  
1047  =head2 Convert, sort data, then re convert.
1048  
1049  This is the most expensive proposition that does not employ a network
1050  connection.
1051  
1052  =head2 Perform sorting on one type of machine only.
1053  
1054  This strategy can employ a network connection.  As such
1055  it would be computationally expensive.
1056  
1057  =head1 TRANSFORMATION FORMATS
1058  
1059  There are a variety of ways of transforming data with an intra character set 
1060  mapping that serve a variety of purposes.  Sorting was discussed in the 
1061  previous section and a few of the other more popular mapping techniques are 
1062  discussed next.
1063  
1064  =head2 URL decoding and encoding
1065  
1066  Note that some URLs have hexadecimal ASCII code points in them in an
1067  attempt to overcome character or protocol limitation issues.  For example 
1068  the tilde character is not on every keyboard hence a URL of the form:
1069  
1070      http://www.pvhp.com/~pvhp/
1071  
1072  may also be expressed as either of:
1073  
1074      http://www.pvhp.com/%7Epvhp/
1075  
1076      http://www.pvhp.com/%7epvhp/
1077  
1078  where 7E is the hexadecimal ASCII code point for '~'.  Here is an example
1079  of decoding such a URL under CCSID 1047:
1080  
1081      $url = 'http://www.pvhp.com/%7Epvhp/';
1082      # this array assumes code page 1047
1083      my @a2e_1047 = (
1084            0,  1,  2,  3, 55, 45, 46, 47, 22,  5, 21, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
1085           16, 17, 18, 19, 60, 61, 50, 38, 24, 25, 63, 39, 28, 29, 30, 31,
1086           64, 90,127,123, 91,108, 80,125, 77, 93, 92, 78,107, 96, 75, 97,
1087          240,241,242,243,244,245,246,247,248,249,122, 94, 76,126,110,111,
1088          124,193,194,195,196,197,198,199,200,201,209,210,211,212,213,214,
1089          215,216,217,226,227,228,229,230,231,232,233,173,224,189, 95,109,
1090          121,129,130,131,132,133,134,135,136,137,145,146,147,148,149,150,
1091          151,152,153,162,163,164,165,166,167,168,169,192, 79,208,161,  7,
1092           32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37,  6, 23, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44,  9, 10, 27,
1093           48, 49, 26, 51, 52, 53, 54,  8, 56, 57, 58, 59,  4, 20, 62,255,
1094           65,170, 74,177,159,178,106,181,187,180,154,138,176,202,175,188,
1095          144,143,234,250,190,160,182,179,157,218,155,139,183,184,185,171,
1096          100,101, 98,102, 99,103,158,104,116,113,114,115,120,117,118,119,
1097          172,105,237,238,235,239,236,191,128,253,254,251,252,186,174, 89,
1098           68, 69, 66, 70, 67, 71,156, 72, 84, 81, 82, 83, 88, 85, 86, 87,
1099          140, 73,205,206,203,207,204,225,112,221,222,219,220,141,142,223
1100      );
1101      $url =~ s/%([0-9a-fA-F]{2})/pack("c",$a2e_1047[hex($1)])/ge;
1102  
1103  Conversely, here is a partial solution for the task of encoding such 
1104  a URL under the 1047 code page:
1105  
1106      $url = 'http://www.pvhp.com/~pvhp/';
1107      # this array assumes code page 1047
1108      my @e2a_1047 = (
1109            0,  1,  2,  3,156,  9,134,127,151,141,142, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
1110           16, 17, 18, 19,157, 10,  8,135, 24, 25,146,143, 28, 29, 30, 31,
1111          128,129,130,131,132,133, 23, 27,136,137,138,139,140,  5,  6,  7,
1112          144,145, 22,147,148,149,150,  4,152,153,154,155, 20, 21,158, 26,
1113           32,160,226,228,224,225,227,229,231,241,162, 46, 60, 40, 43,124,
1114           38,233,234,235,232,237,238,239,236,223, 33, 36, 42, 41, 59, 94,
1115           45, 47,194,196,192,193,195,197,199,209,166, 44, 37, 95, 62, 63,
1116          248,201,202,203,200,205,206,207,204, 96, 58, 35, 64, 39, 61, 34,
1117          216, 97, 98, 99,100,101,102,103,104,105,171,187,240,253,254,177,
1118          176,106,107,108,109,110,111,112,113,114,170,186,230,184,198,164,
1119          181,126,115,116,117,118,119,120,121,122,161,191,208, 91,222,174,
1120          172,163,165,183,169,167,182,188,189,190,221,168,175, 93,180,215,
1121          123, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73,173,244,246,242,243,245,
1122          125, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82,185,251,252,249,250,255,
1123           92,247, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90,178,212,214,210,211,213,
1124           48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57,179,219,220,217,218,159
1125      );
1126      # The following regular expression does not address the 
1127      # mappings for: ('.' => '%2E', '/' => '%2F', ':' => '%3A') 
1128      $url =~ s/([\t "#%&\(\),;<=>\?\@\[\\\]^`{|}~])/sprintf("%%%02X",$e2a_1047[ord($1)])/ge;
1129  
1130  where a more complete solution would split the URL into components 
1131  and apply a full s/// substitution only to the appropriate parts.
1132  
1133  In the remaining examples a @e2a or @a2e array may be employed
1134  but the assignment will not be shown explicitly.  For code page 1047
1135  you could use the @a2e_1047 or @e2a_1047 arrays just shown.
1136  
1137  =head2 uu encoding and decoding
1138  
1139  The C<u> template to pack() or unpack() will render EBCDIC data in EBCDIC 
1140  characters equivalent to their ASCII counterparts.  For example, the 
1141  following will print "Yes indeed\n" on either an ASCII or EBCDIC computer:
1142  
1143      $all_byte_chrs = '';
1144      for (0..255) { $all_byte_chrs .= chr($_); }
1145      $uuencode_byte_chrs = pack('u', $all_byte_chrs);
1146      ($uu = <<'ENDOFHEREDOC') =~ s/^\s*//gm;
1147      M``$"`P0%!@<("0H+#`T.#Q`1$A,4%187&!D:&QP='A\@(2(C)"4F)R@I*BLL
1148      M+2XO,#$R,S0U-C<X.3H[/#T^/T!!0D-$149'2$E*2TQ-3D]045)35%565UA9
1149      M6EM<75Y?8&%B8V1E9F=H:6IK;&UN;W!Q<G-T=79W>'EZ>WQ]?G^`@8*#A(6&
1150      MAXB)BHN,C8Z/D)&2DY25EI>8F9J;G)V>GZ"AHJ.DI::GJ*FJJZRMKJ^PL;*S
1151      MM+6VM[BYNKN\O;Z_P,'"P\3%QL?(R<K+S,W.S]#1TM/4U=;7V-G:V]S=WM_@
1152      ?X>+CY.7FY^CIZNOL[>[O\/'R\_3U]O?X^?K[_/W^_P``
1153      ENDOFHEREDOC
1154      if ($uuencode_byte_chrs eq $uu) {
1155          print "Yes ";
1156      }
1157      $uudecode_byte_chrs = unpack('u', $uuencode_byte_chrs);
1158      if ($uudecode_byte_chrs eq $all_byte_chrs) {
1159          print "indeed\n";
1160      }
1161  
1162  Here is a very spartan uudecoder that will work on EBCDIC provided
1163  that the @e2a array is filled in appropriately:
1164  
1165      #!/usr/local/bin/perl
1166      @e2a = ( # this must be filled in
1167             );
1168      $_ = <> until ($mode,$file) = /^begin\s*(\d*)\s*(\S*)/;
1169      open(OUT, "> $file") if $file ne "";
1170      while(<>) {
1171          last if /^end/;
1172          next if /[a-z]/;
1173          next unless int(((($e2a[ord()] - 32 ) & 077) + 2) / 3) ==
1174              int(length() / 4);
1175          print OUT unpack("u", $_);
1176      }
1177      close(OUT);
1178      chmod oct($mode), $file;
1179  
1180  
1181  =head2 Quoted-Printable encoding and decoding
1182  
1183  On ASCII encoded machines it is possible to strip characters outside of
1184  the printable set using:
1185  
1186      # This QP encoder works on ASCII only
1187      $qp_string =~ s/([=\x00-\x1F\x80-\xFF])/sprintf("=%02X",ord($1))/ge;
1188  
1189  Whereas a QP encoder that works on both ASCII and EBCDIC machines 
1190  would look somewhat like the following (where the EBCDIC branch @e2a 
1191  array is omitted for brevity):
1192  
1193      if (ord('A') == 65) {    # ASCII
1194          $delete = "\x7F";    # ASCII
1195          @e2a = (0 .. 255)    # ASCII to ASCII identity map
1196      }
1197      else {                   # EBCDIC
1198          $delete = "\x07";    # EBCDIC
1199          @e2a =               # EBCDIC to ASCII map (as shown above)
1200      }
1201      $qp_string =~
1202        s/([^ !"\#\$%&'()*+,\-.\/0-9:;<>?\@A-Z[\\\]^_`a-z{|}~$delete])/sprintf("=%02X",$e2a[ord($1)])/ge;
1203  
1204  (although in production code the substitutions might be done
1205  in the EBCDIC branch with the @e2a array and separately in the 
1206  ASCII branch without the expense of the identity map).
1207  
1208  Such QP strings can be decoded with:
1209  
1210      # This QP decoder is limited to ASCII only
1211      $string =~ s/=([0-9A-Fa-f][0-9A-Fa-f])/chr hex $1/ge;
1212      $string =~ s/=[\n\r]+$//;
1213  
1214  Whereas a QP decoder that works on both ASCII and EBCDIC machines 
1215  would look somewhat like the following (where the @a2e array is
1216  omitted for brevity):
1217  
1218      $string =~ s/=([0-9A-Fa-f][0-9A-Fa-f])/chr $a2e[hex $1]/ge;
1219      $string =~ s/=[\n\r]+$//;
1220  
1221  =head2 Caesarian ciphers
1222  
1223  The practice of shifting an alphabet one or more characters for encipherment
1224  dates back thousands of years and was explicitly detailed by Gaius Julius
1225  Caesar in his B<Gallic Wars> text.  A single alphabet shift is sometimes 
1226  referred to as a rotation and the shift amount is given as a number $n after
1227  the string 'rot' or "rot$n".  Rot0 and rot26 would designate identity maps 
1228  on the 26 letter English version of the Latin alphabet.  Rot13 has the 
1229  interesting property that alternate subsequent invocations are identity maps 
1230  (thus rot13 is its own non-trivial inverse in the group of 26 alphabet 
1231  rotations).  Hence the following is a rot13 encoder and decoder that will 
1232  work on ASCII and EBCDIC machines:
1233  
1234      #!/usr/local/bin/perl
1235  
1236      while(<>){
1237          tr/n-za-mN-ZA-M/a-zA-Z/;
1238          print;
1239      }
1240  
1241  In one-liner form:
1242  
1243      perl -ne 'tr/n-za-mN-ZA-M/a-zA-Z/;print'
1244  
1245  
1246  =head1 Hashing order and checksums
1247  
1248  To the extent that it is possible to write code that depends on 
1249  hashing order there may be differences between hashes as stored
1250  on an ASCII based machine and hashes stored on an EBCDIC based machine.
1251  XXX
1252  
1253  =head1 I18N AND L10N
1254  
1255  Internationalization(I18N) and localization(L10N) are supported at least 
1256  in principle even on EBCDIC machines.  The details are system dependent 
1257  and discussed under the L<perlebcdic/OS ISSUES> section below.
1258  
1259  =head1 MULTI OCTET CHARACTER SETS
1260  
1261  Perl may work with an internal UTF-EBCDIC encoding form for wide characters 
1262  on EBCDIC platforms in a manner analogous to the way that it works with 
1263  the UTF-8 internal encoding form on ASCII based platforms.
1264  
1265  Legacy multi byte EBCDIC code pages XXX.
1266  
1267  =head1 OS ISSUES
1268  
1269  There may be a few system dependent issues 
1270  of concern to EBCDIC Perl programmers.
1271  
1272  =head2 OS/400
1273  
1274  =over 8
1275  
1276  =item PASE
1277  
1278  The PASE environment is runtime environment for OS/400 that can run
1279  executables built for PowerPC AIX in OS/400, see L<perlos400>.  PASE
1280  is ASCII-based, not EBCDIC-based as the ILE.
1281  
1282  =item IFS access
1283  
1284  XXX.
1285  
1286  =back
1287  
1288  =head2 OS/390, z/OS
1289  
1290  Perl runs under Unix Systems Services or USS.
1291  
1292  =over 8
1293  
1294  =item chcp
1295  
1296  B<chcp> is supported as a shell utility for displaying and changing 
1297  one's code page.  See also L<chcp>.
1298  
1299  =item dataset access
1300  
1301  For sequential data set access try:
1302  
1303      my @ds_records = `cat //DSNAME`;
1304  
1305  or:
1306  
1307      my @ds_records = `cat //'HLQ.DSNAME'`;
1308  
1309  See also the OS390::Stdio module on CPAN.
1310  
1311  =item OS/390, z/OS iconv
1312  
1313  B<iconv> is supported as both a shell utility and a C RTL routine.
1314  See also the iconv(1) and iconv(3) manual pages.
1315  
1316  =item locales
1317  
1318  On OS/390 or z/OS see L<locale> for information on locales.  The L10N files
1319  are in F</usr/nls/locale>.  $Config{d_setlocale} is 'define' on OS/390
1320  or z/OS.
1321  
1322  =back
1323  
1324  =head2 VM/ESA?
1325  
1326  XXX.
1327  
1328  =head2 POSIX-BC?
1329  
1330  XXX.
1331  
1332  =head1 BUGS
1333  
1334  This pod document contains literal Latin 1 characters and may encounter 
1335  translation difficulties.  In particular one popular nroff implementation 
1336  was known to strip accented characters to their unaccented counterparts 
1337  while attempting to view this document through the B<pod2man> program 
1338  (for example, you may see a plain C<y> rather than one with a diaeresis 
1339  as in E<yuml>).  Another nroff truncated the resultant manpage at
1340  the first occurrence of 8 bit characters.
1341  
1342  Not all shells will allow multiple C<-e> string arguments to perl to
1343  be concatenated together properly as recipes 0, 2, 4, 5, and 6 might 
1344  seem to imply.
1345  
1346  =head1 SEE ALSO
1347  
1348  L<perllocale>, L<perlfunc>, L<perlunicode>, L<utf8>.
1349  
1350  =head1 REFERENCES
1351  
1352  http://anubis.dkuug.dk/i18n/charmaps
1353  
1354  http://www.unicode.org/
1355  
1356  http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr16/
1357  
1358  http://www.wps.com/texts/codes/
1359  B<ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Infiltration> Tom Jennings,
1360  September 1999.
1361  
1362  B<The Unicode Standard, Version 3.0> The Unicode Consortium, Lisa Moore ed., 
1363  ISBN 0-201-61633-5, Addison Wesley Developers Press, February 2000. 
1364  
1365  B<CDRA: IBM - Character Data Representation Architecture - 
1366  Reference and Registry>, IBM SC09-2190-00, December 1996. 
1367  
1368  "Demystifying Character Sets", Andrea Vine, Multilingual Computing 
1369  & Technology, B<#26 Vol. 10 Issue 4>, August/September 1999;
1370  ISSN 1523-0309; Multilingual Computing Inc. Sandpoint ID, USA.
1371  
1372  B<Codes, Ciphers, and Other Cryptic and Clandestine Communication>
1373  Fred B. Wrixon, ISBN 1-57912-040-7, Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers,
1374  1998.
1375  
1376  http://www.bobbemer.com/P-BIT.HTM
1377  B<IBM - EBCDIC and the P-bit; The biggest Computer Goof Ever> Robert Bemer.
1378  
1379  =head1 HISTORY
1380  
1381  15 April 2001: added UTF-8 and UTF-EBCDIC to main table, pvhp.
1382  
1383  =head1 AUTHOR
1384  
1385  Peter Prymmer pvhp@best.com wrote this in 1999 and 2000 
1386  with CCSID 0819 and 0037 help from Chris Leach and 
1387  AndrE<eacute> Pirard A.Pirard@ulg.ac.be as well as POSIX-BC 
1388  help from Thomas Dorner Thomas.Dorner@start.de.
1389  Thanks also to Vickie Cooper, Philip Newton, William Raffloer, and 
1390  Joe Smith.  Trademarks, registered trademarks, service marks and 
1391  registered service marks used in this document are the property of 
1392  their respective owners.
1393  
1394  


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