Fruit - Le Bottin des Jeux Linux

Fruit

Specifications

Title: Fruit Type: Tool
Genre: Puzzle Status:
Category: Puzzle ➤ Board Game ➤ Chess ➤ Engine ➤ UCI Commercial:
Tags: Puzzle; Board Game; Chess Engine; UCI Protocol Demo:
Released: Stable (not Free) : 2.2.1 / Stable (free) : 2.1 Package Name: fruit
Date: 2005-10-29 Extern Repo:
License: Until 2.1 : GPL v2+ / After 2.1 : Free Deb Repo: Debian
View: Third person Package: ✓
Graphic: Text Binary: ✓
Mechanics: Turn-Based Source: ✓
Played: Single PDA:
Quality (record): 5 stars Quality (game): 5 stars
Contrib.: Goupil & Louis ID: 11112
Created: 2010-08-20 Updated: 2019-02-24

Summary

[fr]: Un moteur de jeu d'échecs (une IA spécialisée dans ce type de jeux) libre et multi-plateforme communiquant avec le protocole UCI (les protocoles les plus courants sont Winboard/Xboard, UCI et CECP). D'un très bon niveau (puissance estimée à 2900 Elo), il a été classé 2nd en 2005 au 13ème WCCC (pour World Computer Chess Championship, le championnat du monde d'échecs des ordinateurs). Il est livré avec un livre d'ouverture (augmente les performances d'un moteur dans les premiers déplacements). L'un des meilleurs moteurs de jeu d'échecs libre, un superbe cadeau au libre. [en]: A free/libre and cross-platform strong chess engine (an AI specialized in this type of games) communicating with the UCI protocol (the most common protocols are Winboard / Xboard, UCI and CECP). With a very strong level (estimated at 2900 Elo), it was ranked 2nd in 2005 at the 13th WCCC (for World Computer Chess Championship). It comes with an opening book (increases the performance of an engine in the first moves). One of the best free/libre chess engines, a great gift for the free/libre community.

Videos

Links

Website & videos
[Homepage] [Dev site (src v2.1)] [Features/About] [Screenshots] [Videos t ts gd id r lp g g[fr] g[de] g[ru] g[pl] g[cz] g[sp] g[pt] g[it] g[tr] g] [WIKI 1 2] [FAQ] [RSS] [Changelog 1 2 3]

Commercial : (empty)

Resources
• Some derivative engines : [Fruit reloaded]
Technical informations
[Open Hub] [PCGamingWiki] [Chess Programming Wiki] [MobyGames]

Social
Devs (Fruit Team [en]) : [Site 1 2] [Forums] [twitter] [YouTube] [Interview 1 2]
Devs (Fabien Letouzey [fr] [en]) : [Site 1 2] [Forums] [twitter] [YouTube] [Interview 1 2]
Game : [Blog] [Forums] [twitter] [YouTube]

On other sites
[Wikipedia (Fruit) [fr] [en] [de]]
[Debian]

Reviews


News / Source of this Entry (SotE) / News (SotN)

Description [fr]

Un moteur de jeu d'échecs communiquant avec le protocole UCI, par la Fruit Team (Fabien Letouzey, Ryan Benitez & Joachim Rang).

Fruit est un moteur de jeu d'échecs (une IA spécialisée dans ce type de jeux) libre et multi-plateforme communiquant avec le protocole UCI (les protocoles les plus courants sont Winboard/Xboard, UCI et CECP). D'un très bon niveau (puissance estimée à 2900 Elo), il a été classé 2nd en 2005 au 13ème WCCC (pour World Computer Chess Championship, le championnat du monde d'échecs des ordinateurs). Il est livré avec un livre d'ouverture (augmente les performances d'un moteur dans les premiers déplacements). L'un des meilleurs moteurs de jeu d'échecs libre, un superbe cadeau au libre.

Fruit a été sous licence GPL dès sa création et ce jusqu'à la version 2.1, au delà il n'est plus libre.
Néanmoins de nombreux moteurs dérivés de cette version 2.1 (tel que Toga II, DeepLearningToga, Gambit Fruit, GrapeFruit, TheMadPrune ou encore GNU Chess, pour ne citer que ceux qui se trouvent dans le Bottin) sont apparus et poursuivent également l'évolution de cet excellent moteur d'échecs, sous licence libre.

Ressources et documentations disponibles : voir les fiches "Ressources - Echecs" et "Ressources - Echecs Orientaux".


Fruit est un moteur d'échecs développé par Fabien Letouzey. Il était disponible dans le commerce de septembre 2005 à juillet 2007. À présent, il est gratuit et vous pouvez le télécharger gratuitement sur ce site. Le développement de Fruit par Fabien Letouzey a cessé et il est peu probable qu'il continue. Ces pages Web restent ici principalement à des fins d'archivage.

Fruit est vice champion du monde d'échecs en informatique en 2005 et l'un des meilleurs programmes d'échecs au monde (en date de 2005).

Fruit a un style de jeu unique, ce qui en fait un bon ajout à toute collection de moteurs d'échecs.

Fruit est livré avec un livre d'ouverture personnalisé et a beaucoup de fonctionnalités qui le rendent intéressant particulièrement pour les passionnés de moteurs et les joueurs sérieux.

Fruit est disponible pour Windows, Linux et Mac OS X, et fonctionnera sous n'importe quelle interface d'échecs de votre choix (Chessbase, Arena, ChessPartner, Chess Assistant ou Sigma Chess par exemple).

Fruit est un moteur d'échecs exclusivement UCI.



Debian:

Moteur de jeu d’échecs pour calculer les déplacements

Il s’agit d’un moteur très puissant de jeu d’échecs, classé second lors du treizième championnat mondial de jeu d’échecs par ordinateur en 2005. Il utilise UCI (universal chess interface) comme protocole de communication pour les moteurs de jeu. Cela sous-entend que pour jouer contre lui, une interface compatible UCI telle que Knights est obligatoire. Cette distribution est fournie avec un recueil d’ouvertures que le moteur peut utiliser lors des premiers déplacements du jeu. Cela améliore les performances dans l’entame de jeux d’échecs.


Wikipedia:

Fruit est un programme d'échecs français développé par Fabien Letouzey.

Historique

Apparu en mars 2004, Fruit est à l'origine un logiciel libre.

La version 2.0 distribuée en décembre 2004 est une version majeure et suscite la distribution de plusieurs forks plus ou moins douteux[réf. nécessaire]. Par exemple le logiciel propriétaire Patriot 2.0 est un clone de Fruit 2.0.
Branche logiciel libre

Fruit 2.1 sorti en juin 2005 a un niveau de jeu équivalent à celui de Shredder 9, le plus performant des logiciels commerciaux de l'époque. Le programme dérivé Toga II 0.93 est même plus performant.

D'un point de vue technique, Fruit 2.1 utilise l'algorithme Principal Variation Search et une heuristique à mouvement nul avec une fonction d'évaluation simpliste (qui a été améliorée dans les versions ultérieures) et une représentation de l'échiquier originale (16x16)

La version 2.1 distribuée selon les termes de la licence publique générale GNU est jusqu'en 2008 le logiciel libre d'échecs le plus puissant.
Branche logiciel propriétaire

Après avoir fini deuxième au Championnat du monde d'échecs des ordinateurs en août 2005, Fruit devient un logiciel propriétaire. Sortent les versions 2.2 et 2.2.1, la première à utiliser les tables de finales Nalimov. En novembre 2006, le classement SSDF de Fruit 2.2.1 a été estimé à 2842.

Depuis 2007

En juillet 2007, Fruit redevient un logiciel libre. Après l'abandon du projet par Fabien Letouzey, Fruit est maintenant développé par Ryan Benitez. Dans sa version actuelle, Fruit 2.3.1 est capable de rivaliser avec des programmes commerciaux tels que Fritz ou HIARCS.

Programmes dérivés

Fruit étant un logiciel libre d'un niveau de jeu proche de celui des logiciels propriétaires, de nombreux programmes dérivés de son code ont été édités de façon plus ou moins légales. La notion de copyleft inhérente à la licence GNU GPL impose aux programmes dérivés les mêmes conditions de redistribution que le logiciel libre source. Parmi les programmes dérivés de Fruit on peut citer :

• GNU Chess.

• Toga II. Thomas Gaksch publie en 2005 Toga II, un programme qui dès sa première version est d'une force comparable à celle des logiciels propriétaires, ce qui provoque des soupçons dans la communauté des échecs électroniques. On pense avoir affaire à un clone de Shredder ou de Fritz. Thomas Gaksch avoue la supercherie et publie son code source. La dernière version libre de Fruit datant de 2005, Toga II est maintenant développé à partir du code source de Glaurung, autre fork libre, Thomas Gaksch ayant réussi à faire cohabiter les deux algorithmes.

• Gambit Fruit, comme son nom l'indique, est un programme dérivé de Fruit sorti en 2005. Son auteur Ryan Benitez fut ensuite intégré dans l'équipe de la version commerciale de Fruit. Il en est maintenant le seul développeur.

• Cyclone. En 2008 Norman Schmidt tente de distribuer un fork en logiciel privateur, Xyclops, en fait un clone de Fruit. La supercherie découverte, ce programme est maintenant distribué en logiciel libre sous le nom de Cyclone.

• Rybka. Après une enquête approfondie par l'International Computer Games Association (ICGA) au sujet de Rybka, qui était classé 1er de 2007 à 2010, ce programme a été déchu de ses titres, pour des raisons de plagiat des programmes Crafty et Fruit (information du 29 juin 2011).

• Houdini

• RobboLito

Description [en]

Fruit is a chess engine developed by Fabien Letouzey. It was commercially available from September 2005 until July 2007. Now it is freeware and you can download it for free from this site. The development on Fruit by Fabien Letouzey has ceded and it is unlikely to continue. These webpages stay here mainly for archival purposes.

Fruit is vice world computer chess champion 2005 and one of the strongest chess programs in the world (true as of the year 2005).

Fruit has a unique playing style, making it a good addition to any chess-engine collection.

Fruit comes with a customised opening book and has many features which make it interesting especially for the engine enthusiast and serious correspondence player.

Fruit is available for Windows, Linux and Mac OS X, and will run in any chess interface of your choice (Chessbase, Arena, ChessPartner, Chess Assistant or Sigma Chess for example).

Fruit is a UCI-only chess engine.


Debian:

Chess engine, to calculate chess moves

This is a very strong chess engine, placed second in the 13th world computer chess championship 2005. It uses the UCI (universal chess interface), for chess engines as communication protocol. This means to play against it, you will have to use an UCI capable interface, like knights. This distribution comes with an opening book of moves that the engine can use for the first few moves of the game. This increases performance in the chess games opening.


Chess Programming WIKI:

Fruit,
until Version 2.1 open source, is a groundbreaking UCI compatible chess engine developed by primary author Fabien Letouzey. It made its first appearance to the public in March 2004, when Fruit was a basic program with a very simple evaluation and basic search. However, since then it made progress adding about 100 Elo to each new release (1.5, 2.0, 2.1 and Fruit 2.2).

The release of Fruit until version 2.1 under the GNU General Public License was a "revolution" in computer chess in 2005 - an open source engine was "suddenly" competitive with the long time leading programs Shredder and Junior, as demonstrated at the WCCC 2005, where Fruit became runner up behind Zappa. After the strong Massy 2005 over the board debut, and the great success of Reykjavik, where Fabien Letouzey met his professional colleagues, he decided to close the source and to go commercial - while Fruit derivatives have already appeared based on the source code of Fruit 2.1, most notably Toga by Thomas Gaksch, and Gambit Fruit by Ryan Benitez, who in late 2005 joint forces with Fabian for the commercial endeavor. Fabien finished his commercial computer chess career so far in 2007. Fruit 2.3+ is non GPL with full rights given to Ryan Benitez who continued the Fruit development porting it to bitboards, while Fruit 2.1 is now owned by the Free Software Foundation, released as GNU Chess 6.

Tournament Play

Fruit had its strong debut at CCT7, February 2005, and over the board at Massy 2005 in June 2005, with the then surprising shared second place, tied with Chess Wizard behind AnMon. After the mentioned breakthrough at the WCCC 2005 in Reykjavík, Fruit played the DOCCC 2005, operated by new book author Jeroen Noomen, who short later left the team for Rybka, the IPCCC 2005 b, CCT8 and the DOCCC 2006. Fruit continued to play CCT Tournaments from CCT10 in 2008.

Innovations

Fruit was and still is one of the most influential didactic open source programs. It first uses a 16x12 Vector attack board representation, since Version 1.5 a 16x16 board to have a symmetric treatment of files and ranks. Its structure and C source code was very clean and apparently bug-free due to runtime checking a lot of preconditions using debug asserts. While late move reductions (LMR) might be used in other programs before, Fabien's history based implementation in conjunction with history leaf pruning made LMR very popular. Another Fruit innovation, despite not absolutely new and already a known issue, and related to what is mentioned in evaluation philosophy, was tapered evaluation to avoid discontinuity.

Fruit Team

Beside Fabien Letouzey as primary author and opening book author Marc Lacrosse, Ryan Benitez joined the Fruit-Team in December 2005. Before he developed Gambit Fruit with some interesting changes on the basis of the last open-source-version 2.1. Joachim Rang was the main tester of Fruit since its first public appearance, tuned parameters, and tested evaluation and search features.

Fruit 64

Ryan Benitez continued the development on the non public Fruit in 2007. He converted the board representation from vector attacks to bitboards, and naturally, Fruit has become a new evaluation to go along with that. Fruit by Fabien Letouzey and Ryan Benitez played the CCT10, the CCT11, where it became shared winner along with Bright after the later Rybka disqualification, and the CCT13 in 2011.

Influence

Many programmers took a lot of ideas and implementation details from Fruit, as noted by Vasik Rajlich :

Alexander Schmidt:
The increase in playing strength of the latest chess engines is unbelieveable. We have since some time with Fruit 2.1 by Fabien Letouzey a very strong open source engine. Do you see a relation between the published sources of such a strong engine and the increase of strength in computer chess in general? How much influence do the ideas of Fruit have on the future of computerchess?

Vasik Rajlich:
Yes, the publication of Fruit 2.1 was huge. Look at how many engines took a massive jump in its wake: Rybka, Hiarcs, Fritz, Zappa, Spike, List, and so on. I went through the Fruit 2.1 source code forwards and backwards and took many things.

Fruit Reloaded

In March 2014, ten years after the initial Fruit 1.0 release, Daniel Mehrmann initiated a "let's update Fruit" called Fruit Reloaded. With some help from Ryan Benitez, the aim is to add SMP to Fruit and upgrade search and evaluation with modern techniques. Simultaneously, Fabien Letouzey waved goodbye to Fruit and published his new open source engine Senpai, also with Ryan Benitez and Joachim Rang involved.

Derivatives

• Cluster Toga
• Cyclone
• Fruit Reloaded
• Gambit Fruit
• GridChess
• Lion
• Patriot 2.0
• Rybka
• Strelka
• Toga


Wikipedia:

Fruit is a chess engine developed by Fabien Letouzey. In the SSDF rating list released on November 24, 2006, Fruit version 2.2.1 had a rating of 2842. In the CEGT rating list released on January 24, 2007, Fruit version 2.2.1 had a rating of 2776.

History

At the World Computer Chess Championship in Reykjavík in 2005, Fruit 2.2 scored 8.5 out of 11, finishing in second place behind Zappa.

Until Version 2.1 (Peach), Fruit was free and open-source software subject to the requirements of the GNU General Public License and as such contributed much to the development in computer chess in recent years. Some people still work on the v2.1 source code and have created variations from the original Fruit.

As of July 23, 2007, Fruit became freeware. Fruit 2.3.1 was one of the top 3 free UCI chess engines.

Technical details of Fruit 2.1

Fruit uses the classical Negascout (principal variation search) algorithm with iterative deepening to traverse the game tree. It also uses the null-move heuristic. The original version used a simplistic evaluation function with a robust search. Later versions have improved evaluation functions. The board representation is distinct — Fruit uses a 16x16 board.

Derivatives

Although in 2007 Fabien Letouzey stopped the development of Fruit with version 2.3.1, the earlier open source 2.1 version provided the basis for many other programs.

Toga II

Toga II is a derivative created by Thomas Gaksch, currently continued by Jerry Donald Watson. It has more chess knowledge, multi-processor support, and perhaps a better search algorithm. It is based on Fruit 2.1 and is free. The strongest version is Toga II 4.0, released on 29 December 2017 by Jerry Donald Watson. Experimental versions of Toga II running on computer clusters have competed in the World Computer Chess Championship (WCCC). At about 80 ELO above Fruit 2.3.1, Toga II is the strongest Fruit derivative as of March 2014.

In 2008, forks of Toga II started to appear, like Grapefruit and Cyclone.

GambitFruit

GambitFruit is another free derivative of Fruit 2.1, created by Ryan Benitez. It plays a more aggressive style and has more chess knowledge. GambitFruit also incorporates improvements from Toga II. Development of GambitFruit stopped in 2005.

GNU Chess

GNU Chess 6.0 is based on Fruit 2.1 and the project is of 2017 under active development.

Fruit Reloaded

Fruit Reloaded by Fabien Letouzey, Daniel Mehrmann and Ryan Benitez is an independent fork of Fruit 2.1 with a number of enhancements.

Rybka controversy

In June 2011, a lengthy investigation by the International Computer Games Association (ICGA) determined Rybka was plagiarized from Fruit and Crafty. The author of Rybka, Vasik Rajlich, refused to address the allegations against Rybka with the ICGA, instead preferring an ex post facto public interview conducted by Nelson Hernandez on July 4, 2011. Rajlich had previously said: I went through the Fruit 2.1 source code forwards and backwards and took many things.

Senpai

On the tenth anniversary of the start of Fruit development in 2014, Fabien Letouzey released a completely new engine, Senpai, under the GPLv3. Senpai makes use of chess engine developments made in the intervening decade. It differs from Fruit in using bitboards and C++11's thread support for SMP.

Features

☑ Fruit is available for Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X.
☑ Fruit is UCI-compatible, which means it will run in any interface that supports UCI, such as Fritz (ChessBase), ChessPartner (Lokasoft), Shredder Classic, Chess Assistant, Arena, or Sigma Chess on Macintosh. If Fruit is your first chess program, and you don't own a GUI, please download Arena. It is free and competitive with any commercial GUI. Fruit itself does not include a GUI.
☑ Fruit comes with its own two opening books, which it can use in any GUI. One is a tournament book, which guarantees the best results, while the other is a wider book with more opening variety.
☑ Fruit supports Nalimov Endgame Tablebases (all 6-men and fewer).
☑ Fruit supports multi-variation mode (also known as k-best). In this mode Fruit displays not only the best move, but also the second-best move, and so on, with the exact score. For one thing, this gives you the possibility to see whether there exist several equally good moves or only one good move.
☑ Fruit supports the exclusion and inclusion of moves while analysing. If the GUI supports UCI-2 you can exclude certain moves from analysis or restrict the analysis to certain moves.
☑ Fruit supports Chess960 (also known as Fisher Random Chess).
☑ Fruit has many UCI options that allow you to change its playing style or tune it for certain positions/opponents.
☑ Fruit supports all time controls such as x moves in y minutes, or game in x minutes with increment (x min. per game plus y sec. per move).

Installation [fr]

LANCEMENT DU JEU :

Pour jouer avec ce moteur dans de bonnes conditions (vous pouvez aussi jouer en console, mais une interface graphique est nettement plus agréable), utilisez une interface graphique telle que (testé & validé) : Glchess, Knights, Pychess, Scid,

Nota :
Sous Debian, les moteurs de jeux d'échecs empaquetés sont installés dans /usr/games/ (information utile pour le paramétrage des interfaces graphiques).